I travel with Globus/Monograms. I fly to Heathrow in London on March 21, 2020, then on to Athens International. Globus will be waiting at the Airport in Athens with a sign. It is called transfer. Cynthia is my contact, and her extension is 7042. I will take the Greece Escape land tour. I have companions on the coach.
Athens Airport - Globus/Monograms. Transfer. I meet the tour guide and my traveling companions.
Classical Greece lasted 150 years, the 5th & 4th centuries B.C.
Acropolis means high place. Several temples were built during the 5th century B.C.
The Parthenon is on the Acropolis, built between 447 B.C. and 432 B.C. under Pericles. It was designed by the sculptor Phidias and housed his statue of Athena. The Greeks understood that beauty was a matter of proportion.
Rome conquered Greece in 146 B.C. The Parthenon became a Christian church, then a Muslim mosque. Venetians besieged it in 1687, leaving it in ruins. Lord Elgin shipped the "Elgin Marbles" to England and to the British Museum.
Greek architecture with its marble columns influenced buildings in Europe and America. Marble statues are idealized. Not only are gods and goddesses perfect, but humans are given godlike form.
The Erechtheum is a temple on the Acropolis dedicated to Athena and Poseidon. There was a contest between them to determine which one would be the patron deity of Athens. Each offered a gift. Poseidon offered water, which turned out to be salty. Athena offered the olive tree as a symbol of peace. She won, and Athens was named after her.
The Erechtheum was named after Erechtheus, the legendary first king of Athens. He is the constellation Auriga the charioteer.
Porch of the Maidens - 6 marble statues serve as columns at the Erechtheum, They are called Caryatids. They face the Parthenon. They are replicas. The originals are in a museum.
The Temple of Zeus was dedicated to Zeus, head of the Olympian gods.
The Temple of Athena Nike portrays Athena as the goddess of victory. It was completed in 420 B.C. during the classical period and is the smallest temple on the Acropolis.
The Thesium is the best preserved temple. It is older than the Parthenon and was dedicated to Athena and Hephaestus as patrons of the arts.
The Theater of Dionysus is the birthplace of Greek drama and was dedicated to the god of ecstasy and wine. During the 5th century B.C., the plays of tragedians Aeschylus, Euripides & Sophocles were performed.
The Agora was the marketplace and the place where people assembled for politics. Socrates taught here.
The Panathenaic Stadium was built for the Panathenaic games. It is the only stadium in the world made entirely of marble. The first modern Olympic games were held here in 1896.
Corinth was a city-state. Paul sent letters to them. We cross the Corinth Canal to enter the Peloponnese.
The Peloponese is a peninsula resembling a hand with a thumb and 3 fingers. Mycenae and Olympia are in the Pelopponese.
Mycenae was a bronze age city, and Agamemnon was its king. He led the Greeks in the Trojan War according to Homer's Iliad. The Lion Gate is the entrance to Mycenae, named for the 2 lionesses.
Agamemnon's Palace at Mycenae dates from 1350 B.C. to 1200 B.C.
Atreus was Agamemnon's father. We see the Beehive Tombs. (called The Treasury of Atreus). Tomb of Agamemnon.
Mycenae was the main Greek city when Homer wrote in 800 B.C. about the Trojan War of 1200 B.C. The Iliad and the Odyssey were already old during the classical period 500-350 B.C. Troy was in modern Turkey on the other side of the Aegean.
Heinrich Schliemann, a German archaeologist, discovered Troy in 1870 and Mycenae in 1876. He found what he believed to be the death mask of Agamemnon. Schliemann's wife Sophia was photographed wearing jewelry found by her husband.
Epidaurus is an open-air theater in the Peloponnese. It is still used. This theater shows that the Greeks understood how sound waves travel.
Nauplia is a seaport in the Peloponnese.
We spend the afternoon at Olympia. Olympia was a sanctuary dedicated to Zeus. Temples of Zeus and Hera are here.
The statue of Hermes and the infant Dionysus by Praxiteles is in the Archaeological Museum at Olympia. It was found in the Temple of Hera. The statue of Zeus and Ganymede is here. Ganymede is the constellation Aquarius.
The Arkadian Mountains are in the Peloponnese.
The Oracle of Delphi
Delphi was the ancient sanctuary sacred to Apollo. It was home to the oracle which predicted the future. It is on Mt. Parnassus. The Charioteer is a 5th century B.C. statue in the Delphi Archeological Museum. The constellation Auriga represents Erichthonius (Erechtheum), the legendary ruler of Athens.
Mount Parnassus towers above Delphi. It was sacred to Apollo and the home of the Muses.
The seaport of Patras is a fishing village.
The sirtaki is the dance from Zorba the Greek.
Day 6 - Meteroa area - The Meteora is a rock formation with Eastern Orthodox monasteries built on sandstone pillars.
Marathon & Thermopylae
Athens and Persia were enemies. The Greeks won at Marathon but lost at Thermopylae. 300 Spartans fought Xerxes' Persian army at the Battle of Leonidas.
We hear a lecture about Thebes, Sophocles & Oedipus Rex
Sparta beat Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
Day 8 - Breakfast - Transfer - Airport. Globus will help me check in and get on the plane. I change planes at Heathrow in London and fly to Nashville. Get to Vanderbilt and write my paper. Put it on jimcolyer.com and post it.
Ancient Greece is the cradle of western civilization. Democracy, astronomy, theater, philosophy & architecture have their roots here. Greek science was forgotten during the Middle Ages.
1 Thales of Miletus was the first scientist. He predicted a solar eclipse. Ancient Greeks tried to understand the laws of nature.
2 Aristarchus knew the earth revolved around the sun and that the sun was the center of the solar system.
3 Eratosthenes measured the earth's circumference to a degree of accuracy.
4 Hipparchus divided stars into 6 magnitudes, a system still used. He discovered precession, the 26,000 year wobble of Earth's axis.
5 Pythagoras knew the earth was a globe.
6 Anaxagoras knew the moon reflected sunlight.
7 Heracleides Ponticus knew Mercury and Venus orbited the sun because they stayed close to it.
8 Ptolomy (a Greek living in Alexandria) codified the original 48 constellations.
The great tragedians were:
1 Aeschylus - Prometheus Bound
2 Sophecles - Oedipus Rex, Antigone
3 Eurripides - The Medea
Their plays were performed at the theater of Dionysus near the Acropolis.
The philosophers were Socrates, Plato & Aristotle.
Aristotle retarded science for 1400 years. His teachings became Church dogma. He was wrong about everything.
Ancient Greece had its religion, different from the monotheism of Judaism and Christianity. Gods and goddesses ruled special areas. There were 12 Olympians:
1 Zeus was the sky god and leader. He became the swan of the constellation Cygnus and the bull of Taurus to seduce mortal women.
2 Hera was Zeus' wife. She resented his affairs and sent a crab (constellation Cancer) to attack Heracles (Hercules), Zeus' illegitimate son. Greeks saw the Milky Way as Hera's milk.
3 Poseidon was a brother of Zeus and ruled the sea. In the movie Ulysses, Kirk Douglas destroyed Poseidon's (Neptune) statue. Poseidon cursed him, and that is why it took Ulysses 10 years to get home from the Trojan War.
4 Hades was a brother of Zeus and ruled the Underworld. Romans called him Pluto.
5 Athena was the goddess of wisdom. She sprang from Zeus' head. The olive tree was sacred to her.
6 Apollo was the god of the sun, music & prophecy. Greeks went to oracles to seek advice and to learn about the future. Apollo's oracle at Delphi was the most famous.
7 Artemis was the huntress associated with the moon. She befriended Orion, which made her brother Apollo jealous. He sent a scorpion (constellation Scorpius) to sting Orion.
8 Demeter ruled the harvest. We see her as the constellation Virgo.
9 Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty and the wife of the crippled Hephaestus.
10 Hephaestus was the metalworker who made armor for the heroes. Romans called him Vulcan.
11 Hermes was the messenger who escorted the dead to Hades.
12 Ares was the god of war. Wonder Woman killed him in the 2017 movie.
Cities visited - Athens, Mycenae, Epidaurus, Nauplia, Olympia, Delphi, Arachova
The Acropolis in Athens dates back to the 5th century B.C. It is where our tour begins. We visit the ruins of Mycenae, dating from 1350 to 1200 B.C. and described in Homer’s “The Iliad." We walk among the ruins of Olympia, where the Olympics began in 776 B.C. We experience a Greek cooking demonstration. History comes alive on our visits to these ancient Greek sites. We see the 2300-year-old theater in Epidaurus. Ancient Greeks came to Delphi to seek the wisdom of the Oracle. We tour the excavations and visit the Archaeological Museum. Our tour guide shares Greece's history and stories. Adding to our Greek experience is a Sirtaki dance lesson.
Day 1: ARRIVE IN ATHENS, GREECE.
Welcome to Athens! At 6 pm, I meet our tour guide and my traveling companions.
Day 2: ATHENS.
We visit the ACROPOLIS, perched high on a hill overlooking the city. Here, we see the Parthenon, the Erechtheum with its Porch of Maidens & the Temple of Athena Nike (goddess of victory). We view the Temple of Zeus, Theater of Dionysus, the Agora (where Socrates taught) & the well- preserved Theseum. There is a city tour featuring the Parliament House and a stop at the Panathenaic Stadium. Built in the 2nd century AD, this is the only stadium in the world built entirely of marble. It was host to the opening ceremonies of the first modern Olympics in 1896. Tonight, there is a dinner with local fare.
Day 3: ATHENS, CORINTH CANAL, MYCENAE, EPIDAURUS, NAUPLIA
We stop at the Corinth Canal. Today's highlights include Mycenae, where excavations reveal splendors described by Homer. We see the Beehive Tombs (known as the Treasury of Atreus), Lion Gate & Agamemnon’s Royal Palace. We visit the museum before driving to Epidaurus for a tour of the 2300-year-old open-air theater. We spend the night in Nauplia.
Day 4: NAUPLIA–OLYMPIA.
We drive through the Arkadian Mountains and spend the afternoon in Olympia, where athletes competed. We walk through the ruins of the Gymnasium and the Temples of Zeus and Hera. We visit the museum to see Praxiteles’ Statue of Hermes. Tonight, there is a cooking demonstration.
Day 5: DELPHI.
We journey to Delphi. We tour Apollo's ancient sanctuary on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. We visit the Archeological Museum. The Charioteer is a 5th-century-BC bronze statue. This evening, we dance the sirtaki, from the movie Zorba the Greek.
Day 6: DELPHI–ARACHOVA–ATHENS.
We leave Delphi this morning and drive back to Athens, stopping in the town of Arachova located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. Panoramic view! We troll around the town admiring the architecture before arriving in Athens. Tonight, we savor Greek delicacies with an optional dinner at a local restaurant.
Day 7: ATHENS.
The trip ends with breakfast this morning.
I fly March 21, 2020. I change planes at Heathrow in London and fly to Athens. There are 3 airports, and I fly 4 times. Check in at the airlines desk 4 times. Get 4 boarding passes and look at the blue boards for flight numbers and gate numbers. I have done it before and can still do it. Stay calm, but hustle. Get help when you need it.
Depart Saturday, March 21 @ 8:10pm on American Airlines flight AA6220.
Arrive @ Heathrow Sunday, March 22 @ 9:10am.
Depart Heathrow, Sunday, March 22 @ 12:10pm on British Airways flight BA632
Arrive in Athens, March 22 @ 5:50pm
Depart Athens. Saturday, March 28 @ 8am on British Airways flightBA631
Arrive Saturday, March 28 @ 10:05 @ Heathrow in London
Depart Heathrow, Saturday, March 28 @ 1:35pm
Arrive in Nashville, Saturday, March 28 @ 5:45pm.
I make my way to Vanderbilt, put my paper on my site and send it out.